- B -
Babinski Reflex, Babinski Sign
A reflex where stroking the bottom of the foot will cause the toes to go down in
a normal person and up in an infant or in an adult with a spinal cord injury.
The flexible column of bones extending from the base of the skull to the
tailbone. It is made up of 33 vertebrae. The first 24 vertebrae are separated by
discs, known as intervertebral discs, and bound together by ligaments and
muscles. Five vertebrae are fused together to form the sacrum and 4 vertebrae
are fused together to form the coccyx. The spine is also referred to as the
vertebral column, the spinal column, or the simply the spine.
This fluid filled cystic structure develops behind the
knee in patients who perform repetitive bending. It is an outpouching of the
synovial space in the knee joint.
biological system that enables people to sense where their bodies are and to
maintain a desired position. Normal balance depends on information from the
labyrinth of the inner ear, and from other senses such as sight and touch.
A disruption of the function of the labyrinth of the inner ear results in
problems in maintaining position. It is frequently associated with dizziness,
vertigo and frequent falls.
contemporary technique, developed by a chiropractor, used to locate alleged
shifting of a disk nucleus said to cause tortipelvis/torticollis, spinal
distortions, or curvatures. Rotation of a spinous process toward the wide side
of a disk space on the concave side of a spinal curve (the opposite of what is
normally seen) is thought to indicate that the disk is improperly centered.
These are collections of brain cells which are deep within the brain. They
are responsible for controlling basic bodily functions.
This is a bruise or ecchymosis over the mastoid process, the bony bump behind
the ear. It occurs in patients with head injuries who have suffered a skull
A group of blood pressure type medications which are also is used to treat
some kinds of pain and some drug withdrawal problems. The group includes
Inderal or propranolol. All limit the activity of a hormone called epinephrine
that increases blood pressure.
Affecting both sides of the body or symmetric.
Bio-Energetic Synchronization Technique (B.E.S.T.)
- A method that
involves measuring leg length to determine whether "imbalances" exist in the
body's electromagnetic field. The chiropractor allegedly corrects these
imbalances by placing his hands on certain "contact points" to transfer
electromagnetic energy to the patient.
A new technique in which a special adjustment with an instrument is made
between the atlas and the skull to relieve dozens of ailments ranging from
asthma to psoriasis. This cure-all spinal adjustment corrects subluxations and
"reconstructs the spine."
Biologic Response Modifiers
These are substances that boost the bodys immune
system and improve its ability to fight cancer and other diseases.
Interferon is one example.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
This is a number, calculated by using height and
weight measurements, that gives a general indication of whether or ones weight
is within the healthy range.
A technique that concentrates upon the correction of vertebral misalignments at
the top of the neck as a method of removing nerve interference in the spine. A
"Blair head clamp" is used to position the head for cervical x-ray examination.
Blood-brain barrier (BBB)
The protective membrane that separates circulating blood from brain cells is
the protects the sensitive cells of the brain from a variety of toxins.
hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is composed of
hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones are classed as long (arm
and leg bones), short (hand bones for example), or flat (like the skull and
Bone Density Test
-- A test that measures the strength and calcium density of bones. It is often
used to determine the risk of developing osteoporosis or a fracture.
This is the pieces of bone which are used for surgical fusion. Bone can be
removed from one part of the body to be used in another area. Bone graft can
come from a donor. Artificial bone graft can be manufactured.
The tissue contained within the internal cavities of the bones. This tissue
produces the red and white blood cells.
A metal device that used to secure bones or bone fragments so that they can
heal. This is similar to the mending plates which are available from hardware
This is a threaded metal screw that is inserted into bone, usually with a
This refers to collection nerves that branch from the spinal cord in the neck
area and reach down into each arm. The brachial plexus is at the base of the
neck, next to the shoulder, and includes all of the nerves that serve the arms
and hands. Accidents and birth related injuries can damage the brachial plexus.
Brady This Latin prefix that means slow is used with many other medical terms. This
is the opposite of Tachy-.
A slowness of the heartbeat.
A slowness of movement.
A type of spinal cord injury where one half of the spinal cord is damaged and
which causes weakness on one side of the body and numbness on the opposite side.
If you are aware of any useful spine and neuromusculoskeletal terms which are
not included in this list, or if you have suggestions for better definitions, your help would be
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